76  Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers [Pepys 1.87]

Author: Anonymous

Recording: Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers

Death - general Emotions - excitement Emotions - pride Employment - sailors/soldiers Environment - animals Environment - wonders Gender - masculinity History - ancient/mythological History - heroism History - medieval Places - European Places - extra-European Places - nationalities Politics - celebration Politics - foreign affairs Religion - Bible Religion - heroism Royalty - praise Violence - animals Violence - interpersonal

Song History

There were several early-modern ballads about St. George (who died in c. 303), and some of the individual songs, confusingly, were published under more than one title.  Saint Georges commendation also appeared  as St. George for England and A New Ballad of St. George and the Dragon. It can be difficult to disentangle the various titles and ballads but it is clear that Saint Georges commendation, after its first known publication in 1612, was popular for over one hundred years.

The song appeared in several song-collections (see, for example Playford, Philips and Percy) and it was regularly mentioned in other literary works. In Ben Jonson’s play, Bartholomew Fair, one of the songs sold by the ballad-singer Nightingale is ‘saint George, that O! did break the dragon’s heart’ (this is probably a comic mis-remembering of the line ‘Saint George, Saint George, pluckt out the Dragons heart’). Over a century later, ‘St. George he was for England’ was identifed as one of Squire Weston’s favourite 'tunes’ in Henry Fielding’s The history of Tom Jones.

Most hit ballads reveal only minor textual differences from one edition to the next but this song was much more variable. Its cataloguing approach to the representation of historical heroes suited it well to revision and adjustment. The edition that was published in the mid-seventeenth century as St. George for England carries the initials ‘S. S.’ (possibly Samuel Sheppard), and the song’s new editor updated the content while preserving much of the text and the general shape of the original. In come Alexander, Julius Caesar, Hector, Achilles, Richard I and Henry V; out go Abraham, David, Gideon, Hannibal, ‘Cutlax the Dane’ and many others.

Another edition, A New Ballad of St. George and the Dragon, made further changes after c. 1660, introducing fresh swashbucklers such as John of Gaunt and Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden’s king during the early years of the recent Thirty Years War). On this occasion, the ballad-maker also corrected certain apparent errors in the original song. It makes much more sense, for example to pair ‘Jeptha [Jephthah] and Gideon’ than ‘Jason and Gedion’ because both men are identifed as leaders of the Israelites in the Book of Judges (Jason, in contrast, was the leader of the Argonauts in Greek mythology).

The popularity of this song, and of others about St. George, suggests that rumours of his early modern demise may have been exaggerated. The current consensus seems to be that the potency of St. George faded as a result of two factors: the Reformation assault on commemoration of the saints; and the rise of gunpowder, which rendered George’s main weapon redundant (why lance or spear a dragon when you can blow it to smithereens?)

The evidence of cheap print suggests, however, that this particular saint survived the Reformation, despite the loss of much of the parish pageantry that had surrounded him in the late-medieval period. The reasons for his durability probably lie in his status as a patron saint of England and his long-standing connection with the royal Order of the Garter (founded in 1348). The latter link is referenced in the final line of each verse, for ‘Honi soit que mal y pense’ (‘May he be ashamed who thinks badly of it’) was the motto of the Order. The hit ballad is also part of a body of evidence suggesting that St. George found new life on the printed page, both in words and woodcuts. His outdated weaponry and famously fiery foe clearly retained some of their appeal and, despite the changing times, St. George lived to fight another day.

In several ways, he was actually well-qualified to survive in post-Reformation England. As a figure from the mythical, magical past, he fired the imagination in much the same way as did other historical heroes (see/hear A Pleasant Song of the Valiant Deeds of Chivalry and Robin Hood newly reviv'd). As the nation’s patron saint, George had much to contribute to the development of a more intense sense of Englishness during the early modern period. Nobody who heard the song could be in any doubt that St. George was ‘for England’; the sentiment is expressed in the rousing refrain that concludes each and every verse.

George's patriotic vibe may also have meant that people of almost all political and religious persuasions could appeal to him and sing his song. Critics of royal policy might call upon St. George, but so too might Royalists and the kings whom they supported (Charles II and James II were both crowned on St. George’s Day). It seems that stern disapproval of St. George was largely confined to scrupulous nonconformists (see David Brown and Thomas De Laune).

In an age of warfare, St. George could also serve as a recruiting officer and an inspiring role model for would-be soldiers. The edition of 1612 aims at ‘all Souldiers’ and ‘all that professe Martiall discipline’, inviting them to soar ‘on the winges of Fame for their brave adventures’ rather than sliding anonymously into ‘the pit of oblivion’. The notably snide reference to St. Patrick in the final verse might have been designed to appeal to the feelings of a generation whose representatives had actually fought in Ireland. In tone, the hostile reference was rather out of place in the song, and the claim that St. Patrick had been St. George’s servant for seven years seems to have been unusual (their estimated life-spans did not even overlap). Subsequent editions of the song dropped all this information, concentrating instead on St. Patrick’s role in expelling snakes from his adopted country.

During the reign of the famously peaceful James I (1603-25), the ballad may also have whipped up militaristic enthusiasm among those who hoped for English invervention on the Protestant side in the early stages of the Thirty Years War (1618-48). From this perspective, ‘Honi soit qui mal y pense’ challenged the lovers of peace to admire the ballad and celebrate the violently virtuous exploits of England’s battling saint.

During the last years of James’ reign, many must have thought of the king as they sung or heard the song, for the motto ‘Honi soit qui mal y pense’ appeared in the royal coat of arms. Gustavus Adolphus, the great Swedish king and Protestant commander, may not have featured in the first known edition but perhaps we might detect his presence, marching energetically between the lines. The ballad-makers’ decision to add his name in subsequent editions of the song was thus a logical step.

There was also a flurry of publications, including this ballad and other George-related pieces, in the 1660s (see, for example, Bold, Rowland, Lowick and all of the anonymous works listed below). These were clearly connected with celebration of Charles II’s Restoration, and particularly the role played by another famous George – General Monck – in bringing it about (see also Featured tune history). Thus a song that may have implied criticism of James I’s foreign policy around 1620 was used, around 1660, to celebrate the reign of his grandson.

Modern readers of the ballad’s text may feel that they are wading through a confusing catalogue of past heroes, some of them rather obscure and many of them cryptically described. As early as 1765, Thomas Percy struggled to see the appeal of the song, noting its ‘rambling transitions, and wild accumulations of disconnected parts’. He could only conclude that, even in its original version, it was designed as a burlesque of the popular ballad style (this now seems unlikely, except in the general sense that ballads were to some extent a self-satirising genre). We might also wonder why the author did not stick more tightly to the famous medieval lists of the ‘Nine Worthies’ and the ’Seven champions of Christendom’, an approach that would surely have enhanced the digestibility of the piece. The ballad-makers mention the ‘Worthies’ in the title, but the text subsequently flies off in all directions, mentioning a total of forty-two heroes but including only four of the ‘nine worthies’ and only five of the ‘seven champions’.

The tune, however, helps to bring the song to life, and perhaps we should imagine that many consumers already knew most of the names and could fill in any gaps. The text could also be considered an impressive litany of warriors from many different cultures, eras and backgrounds: some are Biblical (Abraham and Samson, for example); others are classical (Hercules, Romulus and Remus); several are legendary and chivalric (Arthur, Lancelot and Orlando Furioso); a few are comparatively recent rulers (Tamburlaine, Richard I and Henry V);  and  four are champions of the early Christian church (Saints David, James, Patrick and Dennis).

Despite the somewhat chaotic nature of the list, the song is held together by the twin facts that each character was famed for his military prowess but comprehensively outshone by England’s favourite dragon-slayer. The song was simultaneously multi-cultural and vehemently nationalistic.

Saint Georges commendation looks, feels and sounds like an intensely masculine song but it was also a piece with which men might impress desirable women. It was sometimes included in courtship manuals that aimed to provide men with everything they needed to succeed (see Edward Phillips). Presumably, the idea was that a little of St. George’s manly magic would rub off on each lusty singer. The possibility of female admiration for St. George is also mentioned in William Wycherley’s comic play, The gentleman dancing-master (1693). One character remembers the good old days when a typical lady, instead of ‘gadding to plays’, would  have ‘entertain’d her self at home with St. George for England’. Evidence on this point seems to come primarily from male authors but the assumption that women and men were equally impressed by dragon-slaying should certainly be noted.

Christopher Marsh


Anon, The life and death of the famous champion of England, S. George (1660).

Anon, A most excellent ballad of S. George for England and the kings daughter of AEgypt, whom he delivered from death... The tune is, flying fame (1658-64).

Anon, The new academy of complements erected for ladies, gentlewomen, courtiers, gentlemen, scholars, souldiers, citizens, country-men, and all persons, of what degreee soever, of both sexes (1669), pp. 265-68.

Anon, The second part of Merry drollery (1661). pp. 122-27.

Henry Bold, St. Georges Day sacred to the coronation of his most excellent Majesty Charles the II (1661).

Rick Bowers ‘Tamburlaine in two broadside ballads: A Brave Warlike Song and Saint Georges Commendation to all Souldiers’, Notes and queries 254.4 (December, 2009), pp. 551-53.

Broadside ballads from the Bodleian Library: http://ballads.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/

David Brown, Two conferences between some of those that are called separatists and independents (1650), p. 16.

Thomas Delaune, De Laune’s plea for the non-conformists (1683; edn. of 1706), p. 2.

English Broadside Ballad Archive: https://ebba.english.ucsb.edu/

English Short Title Catalogue.

David Hugh Farmer, The Oxford dictionary of saints (1978; 2nd edn., Oxford, 1987), pp. 177-78.

Henry Fielding, The history of Tom Jones, 4 vols. (1749), vol. 1, p. 174.

Peter Heylyn, The historie of that most famous saint and souldier of Christ Jesus; St. George of Capadocia (1631).

The Holy Bible. Quatercentenery edition... of the King James Version (1611; Oxford, 2010), Book of Judges, chs. 6-8 and 11-12.

Ronald Hutton, The rise and fall of Merry England (Oxford, 1994), pp.26-7, 55, 82, 98-9, 115 and 208.

Richard Johnson, The famous history of the seven champions of Christendom (1616; edn. of 1696), A3r-D3r.

Ben Jonson, Bartholomew Fair (c. 1614), ed. E. A. Horsman (Manchester, 1967), p. 54.

Thomas Lowick, The history of the life & martyrdom of St. George, the titular patron of England (1664).

Angela McShane, ‘Recruiting citizens for soldiers in seventeenth-century English ballads’, Journal of early modern history 15 (2011), pp. 105-37.

Thomas Percy, Reliques of ancient poetry, 3 vols. (1765), vol. 3, pp. 286-90.

Ambrose Philips, A collection of old ballads (1723), pp. 23-27.

Edward Phillips, The mysteries of love & eloquence, or, The arts of wooing and complementing (1685), pp. 104-06.

John Playford, An antidote against melancholy made up in pills (1669), pp. 35-37.

Rory Rapple, ‘Military culture’ in Andrew Hadfield, Matthew Dimmock and Abigail Shinn (eds.), The Ashgate Research Companion to Popular Culture in Early Modern England (Abingdon, 2014), pp. 337-56.

Hyder E. Rollins, An analytical index to the ballad-entries (1557-1709) in the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London (1924; Hatboro, Pennsylvania, 1967), nos.2363, 2364, 2365 and 2366.

John Rowland, Great Britain’s bitter lamentation over the death of their most valiant, and most puissant General George Lord Monck (1670), p. 6.

Wit and mirth (1705), pp. 135-38.

William Wycherley, The gentleman dancing-master a comedy (1693), p. 65.

Back to contents

Featured Tune History

‘To a pleasant new tune’ (standard name: St. George for England)

The purpose of this section is to provide brief notes on the melody followed by detailed evidence relating to  its career, paying particular attention to the ‘echoes’ (inter-song associations and connections) that may have been set up if it was nominated for the singing of more than one ballad. In the list presented in the ‘Songs and Summaries’ section below, we have endeavoured to include as many of the black-letter ballads that used the tune as possible, under any of its variant names. Titles from our chart of best-sellers are presented in bold type (these are also in colour when there is a link to the relevant ballad page on the website). It should be noted that it is extremely difficult to date many ballads precisely and the chronological order in which the songs are listed is therefore very approximate (we have drawn on previous attempts to date the ballads, making adjustments when additional evidence can be brought into play).  In most cases, we list the earliest surviving edition of a ballad, though in many instances there may have been earlier versions, now lost.

Versions and variations

This unusual tune, with its chant-like repeated notes, was clearly very well known, though it was only rarely written down. Our recording uses the version that appears on a white-letter ballad praising General Monck, a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660: An Heroical SONG On the Worthy and Valiant Exploits of our Noble Lord General GEORGE Duke of ALBEMARLE (1667; EBBA 36420). The tune can also be found in the famous song collection, Wit and Mirth (1707). The two versions, separated by forty years, are recognisably the same melody, though the second example differs from the first in several particulars.

Ward points out that the tune’s final strains, used for the singing of rousing refrains, is virtually a re-statement of a different tune, ‘John come kiss me now’. This was another famous melody and perhaps it brought its own boisterous and bawdy associations to the songs set to ‘Saint George for England’.

Echoes (an overview)

This melody was associated powerfully with the hit song, Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers (issued under various titles and in variant forms). So strong was its influence that the only other surviving black-letter ballad that was clearly written for the melody was satirical and obviously based upon the original. This was A New Ballad of King Edward and Jane Shore, which redirected the heroical and manly import of the melody towards a mock-celebration of history’s most lascivious seductresses. The opening lines, ‘Why should we boast of Lais and his Knights?/ knowing such Champions, entrapt by Whorish lights’, were a deliberate re-working of the corresponding lyrics in the song about St. George: ‘Why doe you boast of Arthur and his Knightes,/Knowing how many men have endured fights’. Several other lines, notably the memorable refrain, also followed the original very closely, and recycled rhymes include excell/tell, fight/knight and came/tame .

The only other song listed below is Lancashire’s Glory. This draws upon the heroical associations of Saint Georges commendation in a more straightforward manner, though the words are not very well suited to the tune.

[See 'Postscript', below, for additional notes on this melody].

Songs and Summaries

Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers... To a pleasant new tune (W. W., 1612). Pepys 1.87; EBBA 20041. History – ancient/mythological, medieval, heroism; Gender – masculinity; Violence – animals, interpersonal; Emotions – excitement, pride; Employment – sailors/soldiers; Religion – Bible, heroism; Royalty – praise; Environment – animals, wonders; Places – European, extra-European; Politics – celebration, foreign affairs; Death – general. This surveys all of the great heroes from history but concludes that none of them matches St. George.

A New Ballad of King Edward and Jane Shore (no publishers’ names, 1671).  Roxburghe 3.258; EBBA 30969.  Gender – femininity, sex; History – general, romance; Humour – satire, bawdry; Morality – sexual.  A survey of history’s most famous sexually-driven women, concluding that Jane Shore tops the list with her ‘all-conquering Thighs’.

Lancashire’s Glory: OR, High for Lancashire Lads and Lasses... To the Tune of, St. George; Or, A new Northern Tune (E. Oliver, 1672-85). 4o Rawl. 566(134). Places – English; Emotions – pride; Gender – femininity, masculinity, sex; Bodies – looks/physique; History – medieval; Environment – buildings, river; Crime – general, prison; Recreation – music, dance; Employment – sailors/soldiers. This sings the praises of the people and places of Lancashire, a county that surpasses all others (though the words do not fit the tune easily).


The melody was also nominated on two white-letter ballads, both of which call clearly upon its associations with manly heroism. The first was An Heroical SONG, the ballad that lauded George Monck. This was printed in 1667 for the famous music publisher, John Playford, and the broadside was one of the earliest to include musical notation. On 6 March 1667, Samuel Pepys noted in his diary that he had read this ballad while crossing the Thames by boat, though he considered it ‘ridiculous’. The second song was Vive le ROY: Or LONDON’s Joy, issued to celebrate the ‘Instalment’ of a new Mayor of London in 1681. Both songs nodded deliberately and regularly towards the original as they used the melody to tie current political figures to the heroes of old (it may have been this device that earned Pepys’ scorn; the musical conflation of George Monck and St. George was more than he could stomach).

The two white-letter songs were also connected textually with one another. Their refrains, for example, run as follows: ‘Lord George was born in England,/ Restor’d his Countryes Joy,/ Come let us sing Vive le Roy’ and ‘Sir John is for the Monarchy,/ which Rebels wou’d destroy,/ Vive, Vive, Vive le Roy’.

Christopher Marsh


Samuel Pepys, The diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. R. C. Latham and W. Matthews, 11 vols. (1995), vol. 8, p. 99.

Claude Simpson, The British broadside ballad and its music (New Brunswick, 1966), pp. 628-30.

John M. Ward, ‘Apropos The British broadside ballad and its music’, Journal of the American Musicological Society, 20.1 (Spring 1967), p. 71.

Wit and Mirth (1707), vol. 3, p. 20.

Back to contents

Featured Woodcut History

Standard woodcut name: Turning man in hat

The purpose of this section is to provide evidence relating to  the career of the image under discussion, paying particular attention to the ‘reflections’ (inter-song associations and connections) that may have been set up if it was chosen to illustrate more than one ballad. The list given below includes all ballads from the Pepys and Roxburghe collections that feature this woodcut or a close variant (these are the two largest collections, including approximately 3300 sheets, in total). References to ballads from other collections occur only when the featured edition of the song under consideration here (or the featured edition of another song from our list) comes from such a source. Ballads from our chart of best-sellers are presented in bold type, and they also appear in colour where there is a link to another song in the database. Please note, however, that the editions of hit songs listed below are not necessarily those for which digital images are presented on this website. Cross-references to other examples of our featured woodcuts are also presented in bold. It is extremely difficult to date many ballads precisely and the chronological order in which the songs are listed is therefore very approximate (we have drawn on previous attempts to date the ballads, making adjustments when additional evidence can be brought into play).

Reflections (an overview)

This image was used throughout the century by a wide range of publishers. Several distinct woodblocks existed, producing numerous variations in the resultant pictures. The Turning man in hat appears with high hats and low hats, with and without a sword, and on ground that is depicted with subtle differences. Printers clearly saw the commercial benefits of having their own copies of the block.

On our featured edition of Saint Georges commendation, he appears to represent one of a pair of soldiers engaging in conversation about history’s great heroes. Later editions, usually issued with a different title, replaced him and his companion with more directly relevant woodcuts of St. George slaying the dragon. The commissioning of such specific images for ballads that had already established themselves as best-sellers seems to have been a common process.

The Turning man in hat performs a distinct gesture, and it seems to have been this that earned him a prominent place on many ballads. Other woodcuts featuring generic individuals tended to appear mainly on wholesome courtship ballads, but this man bucked the trend. He did sometimes illustrate such songs (see The Wooing Lasse, and the Way-ward Lad, for example) but more frequently his associations are evidently more complex. His stance – turning away from something with one hand raised – is often used to reflect some sort of renunciation or sense of distaste.

At its most simple, the gesture can be used to indicate that he is bored with somebody standing ‘off stage’ and prefers to talk to the figure who stands beside him (see Saint Georges commendation, for example). He has greater significance, however, on several moralising ballads about formerly debauched men who have wisely decided to turn their backs on a variety of damaging pastimes. On A warning for all good fellowes to take heede of Punckes inticements, he is shown turning away from a suitably alluring maiden. A pleasant new Song, subtitled ‘a far[e]well to good fellowship’, reinforces the moralising message of the text by displaying the Turning man in hat alongside another individual who strikes exactly the same pose. In other ballads, the turning away takes on a different but comparable significance: disdain for an honest beggar; annoyance at being tricked, humiliated or scorned by women; and repentance before execution.

And if the more straightforward courtship ballads are re-visited with these associations in mind, it is noticeable that here too the texts often include some hint of initial reluctance on the man’s part. The Wooing Lasse, for example, gets her man in the end, but at first she must persuade him against his will to ‘sport’ with her rather than dedicate himself to his work. The Turning man in hat thus had an intriguing career, and it may well be that his appearances often carried a charge that we may not immediately recognise.

[See 'Postscript', below, for additional notes on this woodcut].

Songs and summaries

A Country new Jigge betweene Simon and Susan (W. I., 1596-1639). Pepys 1.278-9; EBBA 20129. Gender – courtship; Family – children/parents; Emotions – joy, love. A devoted couple persuade the woman’s father that they should be allowed to marry (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

A pleasant new Song, Of the backes complaint, for bellies wrong (W. I., 1596-1639).  Pepys 1.446-7; EBBA 20211. Recreation – alchohol, good fellowship; Morality – social.  A man turns away from the harmful and wasteful ‘good fellowship’ of his past (picture placement: he appears alongside another man who strikes a very similar pose)

Good Sir, you wrong your Britches (I. T., 1597-1626).  Pepys 1.280-1; EBBA 20130.  Gender – courtship, femininity, masculinity, Cupid; Humour – mockery.  A man declares his love for a woman but she scorns him, relenting only at the end (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

Newes good and new (J. Trundle, 1597-1626).  Pepys 1.210-11; EBBA 20094.  Society – criticism; News – general; Morality – social; Employment – general; Humour – satire  One man tells another the news that everyone is now honest and moral, but his companion cannot believe it (picture placement: he appears alongside another man who adopts a very similar stance).

Coridons commendation in the praise of his loue the faire Phillis (I. T., 1597-1626).  Pepys 1.330-1; EBBA 20158.  Gender – courtship, femininity; Employment – female. A man sings the praises of his beloved, particularly her fairness and honesty (picture placement: wearing different hats, he appears on both sides of the ballad, paired with a woman holding a bouquet on both occasions).

A warning for all good fellowes to take heede of Punckes inticements (T. P., 1598-1625).  Pepys 1.288-9; EBBA 20135. Gender – femininity, masculinity, sex; Recreation – fairs/festivals, music; Morality – sexual. This warns men to avoid the allure of lascivious women and urges such women to reform their ways (picture placement: he turns away from a woman holding a bouquet).

Mr. Playstowes Epithalamium: OR The Mariage of Pandarus and Flora (G. E., 1600-24). Roxburghe 1.348-49; EBBA 30237. Employment – prostitution; Gender – courtship, marriage, sex; Recreation – weddings, alcohol, music; Bodies – health/sickness; Emotions – joy; History – ancient/mythological; Humour – bawdry, satire; Religion – ancient gods. A song that purports to celebrate the debauched and disgusting wedding of Sir Pandar and Flora, ‘Both he and she of Brothelrie’ (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, to the right of a woman with a leafy fan).

Tis not otherwise: OR: The praise of a married life (G. [E.], 1600-24).  Pepys 1.394-5; EBBA 20183.  Gender – marriage, femininity, masculinity; Recreation – games, alcohol, good fellowship; Family – pregnancy/childbirth. A young man celebrates the benefits of marriage in answer to an earlier ballad, probably Anything for a quiet life (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

The siluer Age, or, The World turned Backward (G. E., 1600-24). Pepys 1.154-5; EBBA 20067. Society – criticism, general; Employment – general; Humour – satire; Morality - social. This celebrates, ironically, the honesty and justice that prevails in the current age (picture placement: he is one of four individuals – three men and a woman – who stand in various positions).

A lamentable new Ditty, made vpon the death of a worthy Gentleman, named George Stoole, dwelling sometime on Gate-side Moore, and sometime at New-castle in Northumberland: with his penitent end (H. Gosson, 1601-40).  Roxburghe 1.186-87; EBBA 30131.  Crime – receiving stolen goods; Death – execution, godly end; Emotions – sorrow, love; Gender – masculinity, adultery/cuckoldry; Religion – Christ/God; Violence – punitive; Environment – animals; Places – English.  This describes the bravery with which George Stoole faced execution, apparently for illegal horse-trading (picture placement: he appears on the right, turning away from an execution and set just above a verse criticising those who ‘cast away’ George Stoole for so slight an offence).

The Maidens complaint of her Loves inconstancie (H. G., 1601-40).  Roxburghe 1.248-49; EBBA 30172.  Gender – courtship, masculinity, femininity, Cupid; Morality – romantic/sexual; Emotions – love, anger, despair; Bodies – health/sickness, physique/looks; Recreation – music.  A woman, deserted by a manipulative lover, laments her sad state and criticises the ways of ‘false men’ (picture placement: he appears on the right side of the sheet, next to a courtly lady with a fan).

A Warning for all Murderers (Henry Gosson, 1601-40). Roxburghe 1.484-85; EBBA 30323. Crime – murder; Death – unlawful killing; Family – kin, pregnancy/childbirth, inheritance, children/parents; Violence – interpersonal; Morality – familial; News – convicts/crimes; Places – Welsh; Employment – agrarian. Three men murder their cousin and his pregnant wife, hoping hereby to receive the dead man’s inheritance, but the baby survives the attack in his mother’s womb and emerges to exact a terrible revenge on the killers (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, turning away from a curious scene featuring a woman in bed, a male visitor and a devil).

A Caueat or Warning. For all sortes of Men both young and olde (H. G., 1601-40).  Pepys 1.46-7; EBBA 20217.  Gender – femininity, masculinity, sex; Morality - sexual.  A song advising men to avoid the company of lewd women (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

A merry Ballad of a rich Maid that had 18. seuerall Suitors of severall Countries (Henry Gosson, 1601-40).  Pepys 1.248-249; EBBA 20114. Gender – courtship, masculinity; Humour – mockery; Places – English, Scottish, European. A woman lists a string of suitors from many countries, describing their faults and asking listeners to help her choose between them (picture placement: he appears next to a courtly woman who towers over him).

The Northampton-shire Lover (H. Gosson, 1601-40).  Pepys 1.324-5; EBBA 20155.  Gender – courtship; Family – children/parents; Places - English.  A man woos a woman, who is initially suspicious and hostile but eventually agrees to marry him (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

A mery new Jigge. Or, the pleasant wooing betwixt Kit and Pegge (H. Gosson, 1601-40).  Pepys 1.258-9; EBBA 20119.  Gender – courtship, femininity, masculinity; Humour – mockery.  An amorous man woos an insulting and resistant woman, without success (picture placement: he appears next to Queen Elizabeth).

The loving Virgins Complaint (Fr. Coules, 1601-40).  Pepys 1.328-9; EBBA 20157. Gender – courstship, femininity, masculinity; Emotions – love.  A woman laments the extreme shyness of the man she loves (picture placement: he seems to turn away from Queen Elizabeth).

A Song made of Nothing. Yet he that doth read, or heare it shall find, Something of nothing to pleasure his mind (John Wright, 1602-58). Roxburghe 1.372-73; EBBA 30251. Morality – general, social/economic, romantic/sexual; Society – criticism; Recreation – games/sports, alcohol; Religion – Christ/God; Economy – money, hardship/prosperity; Bodies – clothing; Politics – Royalist; Royalty – praise. This criticises immoral conduct of all sorts and praises good behaviour, connecting the two by contemplating the concept of nothing (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, completing a row of three single men in hats, all of whom face left).

Saylors for my money. A new Ditty composed in the praise of Saylors and Sea affaires (C. Wright, 1610-38).  Pepys 1.420-1; EBBA 20197.  Employment – sailors/soldiers; Gender – masculinity; Places – travel; Religion – general.  A sailor describes the courage and other qualities that are required of those who make their livings at sea (picture placement: he stands beside another man whose body-language is strikingly similar).

Roome for Companie, heere comes Good Fellowes (E. W., 1611-14). Pepys 1.168-169; EBBA 20074.  Society – general, urban life; Employment – general; Places – English; Recreation – fairs/festivals. Celebratory song welcoming all sorts and types to Bartholomew Fair (picture placement: wearing different hats, he appears on both sides of the ballad, with a town scene in between).

The Beggers Intrusion, Or the worlds Illusion (E. W, 1611-56).  Pepys 1.216-17; EBBA 20097. Society – criticism; Death – result of immorality; Emotions – anger; Employment – general; Morality - general.  Representatives of a wide range of social types treat a beggar with disdain and he delivers to each a chilling warning (picture placement: he appears alongside another man who  adopts the same stance). 

No body loves mee (E. W., 1611-56).  Pepys 1.431; EBBA 20202.  Recreation – general, good fellowship; Morality – social; Religion – morality, heaven and hell.  In the first song, a man laments the fact that his friends deserted him when his money ran out; in the second, ordinary working men are warned of the dangers of commonplace recreations (picture placement: this is the only woodcut and it appears right over the opening line).

The Lovers Lamentation to his love Nanny (E. W., 1611-56).  Pepys 1.332-3; EBBA 20159.  Gender – courtship; Emotions – love; Recreation – music.  Three songs on one sheet, all concerning love and sad partings between a maiden called Nanny and her lover (picture placement: he appears over the opening verses of the first song, next to an Akimbo man with plumed hat).

The Arrainement condemnation and execution of the grand [cutpurse] John Selman (imprint missing, 1612).  Pepys 1.130-31v; EBBA 20057.  Crime – robbery; Death – execution, godly end; Emotions – sorrow; News – convicts; Religion – heaven and hell.  A condemned man describes his crime and expresses remorse (picture placement: he stands beside a woodcut depicting a hanging).

Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers (W. W., 1612). Pepys 1.87; EBBA 20041. History – ancient/mythological, medieval, heroism; Gender – masculinity; Violence – animals, interpersonal; Emotions – excitement, pride; Employment – sailors/soldiers; Religion – Bible, heroism; Royalty – praise; Environment – animals, wonders; Places – European, extra-European; Politics – celebration, foreign affairs; Death – general. This surveys all of the great heroes from history but concludes that none of them matches St. George (picture placement: he appears over the opening lines, next to a soldier in a helmet).

The Shepheards Lamentation (I. W., 1612-46?).  Pepys 1.366-7; EBBA 20173.  Death – grief; Emotions – sorrow; Employment – agrarian; Gender – courtship, femininity.  A shepherd grieves for the loss of his sweetheart, and describes her excellent qualities (picture placement: he appears over the second part of the ballad, alongside a courtly woman).

A merry Progresse to London to see Fashions (I. White,  1613-51).  Pepys 1.198-9; EBBA 20088.  Society – rural life, urban life; Recreation – tobacco, alcohol, good fellowship; Humour – deceit/disguise, mockery; Places – English; Gender – femininity, masculinity. This describes the unfortunate adventures of a countryman in the big, brash city (picture placement: he stands in between pictures of a nearly-naked man smoking and a group of two women and one man).

[Dice, Wine and Women] OR The vnfortunate Gallant gull'd at London (T. L., 1614-69).  Pepys 1.200-01; EBBA 20089.  Recreation – alcohol, good fellowship, fashions, games/sports, hospitality, theatre, sight-seeing; Society – urban life; Crime – robbery, pirson; Emotions – excitement, confusion, sorrow; Places – English; Humour – misunderstanding, deceit/disguise, mockery; Gender – sex; Employment – crafts/trades, prostitution; Bodies – clothing.  A man from Cornwall visits London and spends or loses all his money within a short space of time because of the overwhelming temptations of the place (picture placement: he appears on the right side of the sheet, turning away from a town).

The merry Old Woman (F. Coules, 1624-80).  Roxburghe 1.268-69; EBBA 30191.  Gender – courthship; Employment – crafts/trades, professions; Recreation – good fellowship, alcohol.  An old woman delivers wise advice, first on the selection of marital partners and then on life in general (picture placement: he stands over the opening verse, to the left of a Woman in charge).

Money is my Master: Yet once it was a servant unto mee (Francis Coules, 1624-80). Roxburghe 1.526-27; EBBA 30351. Economy – money, hardship/prosperity; Emotions – sorrow; Recreation – alcohol, good fellowship, games/sports; Society – friendship; Employment – apprenticeship/service. A man, once wealthy but now poor, asserts the power of money and regrets that he did not manage it more responsibly (picture placement: he stands beneath the title, to the right of two carousing men).

The Whoremongers Conversion, And his Exhortation to's worshipfull friend, To leaue haunting whores (Fr. Cowles, 1624-80).  Roxburghe 1.478-79; EBBA 30319. Society – friendship; Employment – prostitution; Gender – sex, masculinity, femininity; Morality – general; Bodies – health/sickness, adornment; Recreation – alcohol, tobacco, theatre; Economy – hardship, money; Emotions – sorrow, guilt; Places – English; Religion – body/soul.  A once-wealthy man, fallen into hardship because of his love of whores, strumpets and ‘queans’, expresses his regrets and warns a friend to avoid such courses (picture placement: he appears over the opening lines, next to a courtly woman with a fan).

The wofull complaint of a Love-sicke Mayde (F. Coules, 1624-80).  Roxburghe 1.280-81; EBBA 30199. Gender – courtship, femininity, masculinity, Cupid; Emotions – despair, love, anger; Morality – romantic/sexual; Bodies – health/sickness. A young woman is convinced that her sweetheart has deserted her, but he pops up in the second half of the song to deliver reassurance and to explain that he was merely testing her loyalty (picture placement: he appears on the right side of the sheet).

The young mans kinde reply unto the comfortlesse Mayde (F. Coules, 1624-80). Roxburghe 1.348; EBBA 30238. Gender – courtship, masculinity, femininity; Emotions – sorrow, love; Morality – romantic/sexual; Religion – Christ/God. A man apologises to his sweetheart for having tested her constancy and caused her sadness, and he now declares his love for her and his wish to marry immediately (picture placement: he stands over the opening verse, and there are no other woodcuts).

Heres to thee kind Harry. OR The plaine dealing Drunkard (Henry Gosson, 1627-40?).  Pepys 1.432-3; EBBA 20203.  Recreation – good fellowship, alcohol; Society – criticism; Morality – social.  A true-hearted drunkard celebrates wholesome good fellowship and condemns all forms of dishonesty and deceit (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

The distressed Virgin: OR, The false Young-man, and the constant Maid (F. Coules, 1629-80).  Roxburghe 1.90-91; EBBA 30062.  Gender – courtship, Cupid, masculinity, femininity; Morality – romantic/sexual; Death – heartbreak; Emotions – sorrow.  A young woman, abandoned by the man to whom she was engaged, expresses her extreme sadness and declares her readiness to die (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, to the left of Queen Elizabeth).

The witty Westerne Lasse (F Coles, c. 1631). Pepys 1.304-5; EBBA 20144.  Gender – courtship.  A pregnant woman is deserted by her sweetheart and resolves to trick another man into marriage (picture placement: he appears next to a woman holding a bouquet).

The lovely Northerne Lasse, Who in this ditty here complaining, shewes What harme she got milking her dadyes Ewes (F. Coules, 1632-80).  Roxburghe 1.190-91; EBBA 30133. Gender – courtship, masculinity, femininity, sex; Morality – romantic/sexual;  Employment – agrarian, female/male; Family – children/parents. A maiden becomes pregnant by a seductive and unreliable shepherd’s boy but eventually another man falls in love with her and all is well (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, turning away from Queen Elizabeth).

A warning for all lewd livers, By the example of a disobedient Childe, who riotously wasted and consumed his Fathers and Mothers goods (Thomas Lambert, 1633-40).  Roxburghe 1.442-43; EBBA 30298. Family – children and parents; Emotions – sorrow; Gender – sex; Recreation – games; Religion – morality; Crime – robbery;  Death – result of immorality. The tale of a young man who wastes all his money on gaming and lewd women before dying miserably on a dung-hill (picture placement: he appears beneath the title and to the left of a picture featuring a man, a woman and a devil).

John and Joan: OR, A mad couple well met (Tho: Lambert, c. 1634).  Roxburghe 1.168-69; EBBA 31599.  Gender – marriage, masculinity, femininity; Humour – domestic/familial, satire; Recreation – alcohol, good fellowship; Economy – hardship/prosperity; Bodies – clothing, adornment. A newly married couple match one another in various forms of disreputable conduct, until the ensuing poverty forces them to reform their ways and live together ‘in plenty, peace, and rest’ (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, next to a woman in a farthingale skirt).

Keep a good tongue in your head: FOR Here's a good woman in every respect, But only her tongue breeds all the defect (Thomas Lambert,  c. 1634); Roxburghe 1.512-13; EBBA 30344. Gender – marriage, femininity; Bodies – looks/physique; Humour – domestic/familial; Recreation – music, dance; Employment – female; Family – pregnancy/childbirth. A man commends his new wife for her many feminine qualities and accomplishments, but notes at the end of each verse that ‘she cannot rule her tongue’ (picture placement: he appears on the right, next to a woman who wears a ruff).

A Messe of good Fellows (Thomas Lambert, c. 1634).  Roxburghe 1.260-61; EBBA 30186.  Recreation – good fellowship, alcohol, music, hunting; Gender – masculinity, marriage; Emotions – joy; Morality – social/economic, romantic/sexual; Bodies – health/sickness; Economy – hardship/prosperity, money.  A celebration of honest good fellowship, with the joys of communal alcoholic intake and living for the moment placed to the fore (picture placement: he appears on the right, facing a soldier whose hand is on his hip).

Wit's never good till tis bought: OR, Good counsell for improvident men, Fit to make use of now and then (Thomas Lambert, c. 1634).  Roxburghe 1.456-57; EBBA 30307.  Recreations – alcohol, good fellowship; Emotions – sorrow, guilt; Economy – extortion, hardship/prosperity; Employment – alehouses/inns; Gender – masculinity; Morality – general; Society – neighbours; Violence – interpersonal. A man regrets a life of drinking, fighting, litigating and being tricked, and he notes that good sense always arrives after a cost is paid (picture placement: he appears on the right, next to another gallant in a similar pose).

Loves Lunacie. OR, Mad Besses Fegary. Declaring her sorrow, care and mone, Which may cause many a sigh and grone (John Wright the younger, 1634-58).  Roxburghe 1.206-07; EBBA 30147. Disability – mental; Emotions – love, despair; Gender – courtship, Cupid, femininity; History – ancient/mythological; Bodies – health/sickness, adornment; Religion – ancient gods.  A woman, confined to the Bethlem hospital, describes her madness and blames it on her abandonmnet by her sweetheart, Tom (picture placement: he appears on the right, turning away from a woman with a leafy fan).

The Wooing Lasse, and the Way-ward Lad (J. Wright junior, 1634-58).  Roxburghe 1.532-33; EBBA 30354.  Gender – courtship, masculinity, femininity; Emotions – frustration, longing, love; Employment – agrarian; History – ancient/mythological, romance; Humour – mockery.  A young woman is frustrated that her chosen man will not leave his work to sport with her, but he finally changes his tune following Cupid’s forceful and decisive intervention (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, to the right of Queen Elizabeth).

The merry Carelesse Lover: OR, A pleasant new Ditty, called, I love a Lasse since yesterday, And yet I cannot get her (F. Coules, 1634-80). Roxburghe 1.238-39; EBBA 30167. Gender – courtship, femininity, masculinity; Emotions – longing, hope, contentment; Employment – female/male, crafts/trades; Family – children/parents. A man, having observed the pains that others suffer for love, resolves that he will not sink into depression if the woman whom he loves decides to reject him (picture placement: he appears on the right, turning away from a woman with a leafy fan).

Labour in vaine. OR An imperfect description of Love (Thomas Lambert, c. 1636).  Roxburghe 1.192-93; EBBA 30134.  Emotions – love, anxiety, despair, confusion; Gender – masculinity; History – ancient/mythological; Environment – landscape; Bodies – health/sickness; Society – rich/poor. A meditation on the pain of unrequited love and its cruel power over all sorts of men (picture placement: he appears on the right side of the sheet, next to a finely-dressed woman with a flower in her hand).

The faithfull SHEPHERD (M. Cole, T. Vere, J. Wright, J. Clark, W. Thackeray, and T. Passenger, 1681-82).  Pepys 3.224; EBBA 21237.  Gender – courtship; Emotions – love, joy; Employment – agrarian, female/male; Morality – romantic/sexual; Nature – animals, birds, flowers/trees; Society – rural life. A shepherd and his sweetheart, Flora, declare their undying love for one another and decide it is time to marry (picture placement: he stands beneath the title and to the right of a shepherd and shepherdess).

True love without deceit OR, The Country Girles Happiness (J. Wright, J. Clark, W. Thackeray, and T. Passenger, 1682-84).  Pepys 3.101; EBBA 21104.  Emotions – longing, love, joy; Gender – courtship, sex; Employment – agrarian, female/male; Morality – romantic/sexual; Bodies – physique; Society – rich/poor.  This celebrates the wholesome love – simultaneously innocent and sexually fulfilling – that exists between all country maidens and their true-hearted lovers (picture placement: he stands, without his left hand, beneath the title and alongside a young couple in a rural setting).

The Hartford-shire Mens Fears of the Maidens Furies. It being an Answer to the Nine Maidens Attempt in Gelding the Young-man (J. Bissel, 1685-88).  Pepys 3.276; EBBA 21290.  Gender – sexual violence, femininity, masculinity, sex; Humour – bawdry, extreme situations/surprises, mockery; Violence – interpersonal, sexual; Emotions – fear; Bodies – clothing; Employment – agrarian. This sequel to an earlier ballad suggests that young men are now terrified of being castrated by irate maidens and have therefore taken to wearing padlocks on their breeches (picture placement: he stands, without his left hand, beneath the title and in between two other men).

The poor Mans Counsellor, OR, The marryed mans Guide (no imprint, later seventeenth century). Roxburghe 2.266; EBBA 30722. Gender – marriage; Religion – moral rules; Morality – general; Recreation – alcohol, games, good fellowship; Employment – general; Society - friendship.  A friendly narrator instructs a poor man on how to live thriftily, honestly and contentedly (picture placement: he appears beneath the title, in between two head-and-shoulders woodcuts of sober-looking men).


A very similar gesture is depicted in another woodcut of roughly the same period. See, for example, Good Admonition (E. B., c. 1630, EBBA 20239).  The two versions do not seem to have appeared on the same sheets, perhaps because the blocks were owned by rival printers who tended to work with different publishers.

Christopher Marsh


Back to contents

Related Texts

There were dozens of publications about St. George in the early modern period. Most of them celebrated his exploits and/or defended him against criticism from nonconformist Protestants who felt that the English should not have retained any saints, even their national patron, after the Reformation (see also Song history). Several scholars tried to disentangle fact and fiction in the legend, but the authors of The life and death of the famous champion of England, S. George, a chapbook of 1660, embraced the creative freedom created by the patchy historical record and explained confidently that George was born in Coventry.

Interesting and entertaining though much of this material is, very few of these publications suggest a direct textual relationship to Saint Georges commendation. The one obvious exception is A brave warlike Song, published as a broadside in c. 1626. This is set to a different tune – ‘List lusty Gallants’ – but its text echoes the hit ballad at numerous points. The refrain, beginning ‘Saint George for England, Saint Denis for France’, is very similar, though references to several other saints are added. A brave warlike Song is more methodical in separating the famous ‘Nine Worthies’ (featured in part one) from the ‘other brave Warriours not ranckt among the Worthies, though as worthy’ (in part two) but several figures are found in both ballads. These include David, Arthur, Godfrey of Boulogne, Charlemagne, Tamburlaine, Richard I and Guy of Warwick. There are some interesting additions, however, including Elizabethan heroes of the war against Spain such as Francis Drake, Martin Frobisher and the lesser known ‘Bold Richard Pike of Tavistoke’.

Several verses of A brave warlike song present clear echoes of Saint Georges commendation. Compare, for example, the following lines: ‘David elected a Prophet and a King,/ He slew the great Goliah with a stone within a sling’ and ‘David by election/ a Prophet and a King,/ He slew the great Goliah/ with a stone out of a sling’. In both songs, Richard I kills a lion ‘with his naked hand’, while Guy of Warwick slays a ‘Dun-cow, the Divell of Dunsmore-heath’. The ballads are closely related, though A brave warlike Song was nothing like as successful as Saint Georges commendation.

Christopher Marsh

Back to contents

Saint Georges commendation to all Souldiers: or, S. Georges Alarum to all that professe Martiall/ discipline, with a memoriall of the Worthies, who have been borne so high on the winges of Fame/ for their brave adventures, as they cannot be buried in the pit of oblivion.

To a pleasant new tune.

[Play each verse by clicking anywhere within its text]


WHy doe you boast of Arthur and his Knightes,

Knowing how many men have endured fightes,

Besides King Arthur, and Lancelot du Lake,

Sir Tristram de Lionel, that fought for Ladyes sake:

Read old Histories, and then thou shalt see,

Saint George, Saint George the Dragon made to flee,

S. George for England, S. Dennis is for France,

Sing Hony soit qui mal y panse.


Marke out father Abraham when first he reschued Lot,

Onely with his household, what conquest there he got:

David elected a Prophet and a King,

He slew the great Goliah with a stone within a sling:

Yet these were not Knightes of the Table round.

S. George, S. George, the Dragon did confound:

S. George for England, S. Dennis is for France,

Sing Hony soit qui mal y panse.


Jason and Gedion did lead their men to fight,

They conquered the Amorites, and put them all to flight,

Hercules his labours on the plaines of Basse,

And Sampson slew a thousand with the jaw-bone of an Asse:

And then he threw a Temple downe, and did a mighty spoyle,

S.  George, saint George the Dragon he did foyle:

S. George for England, saint Dennis is for France, &c.


The Warres of the Monarches, they were too long to tell,

And next of all the Romans, for they did farre excell,

When that Hanyball and Scipio, so many fieldes did fight,

Orlando Furioso was a Worthy Knight:

Remus and Romulus that Rome first did build.

S. George, saint George the Dragon made to yeeld.

S. George for England, saint Dennis, &c.


The noble Alfonso, which was the spanish King,

The order of the Red-scarffes and Ben-rowles he did bring,

He had a troope of mighty Knightes when first he did begin,

that sought adventures far & neere, what conquest they might win

The rankes of the Pagans, he often put to flight,

S. George, saint George did with the Dragon fight,

S. George for England, &c.


Many have fought with proud Tamberlaine,

Cutlax the Dane, great Warre he did maintaine,

Rowland of Breame, and good saint Oliver

In the Forrest of Acon, slew both Woolfe and Beare:

Besides that noble Hollander, saint Goward with the Bill,

S. George saint Gorge the Dragons blood did spill,

S. George for England, &c.


Bevis conquer’d Ascupart, and after slew the Boare,

And then he crost beyond the seas, to combat with the Moore,

Sir Isonbras, and Iglesmore, they were Knights bold.

And good sir John Mandevile of travell much hath told:

These were the English Knights, that Pagans did convert.

S. George, saint George pluckt out the Dragons heart.

S. George for England, &c.


Valentine and Orson of King Pipins blood,

Alfride and Henry, they were Knights good:

The foure sonnes of Amon, that followed Charlemaine,

Hughan of Burdeax, and Godfrey of Bullaine:

These were foure French Knights, that lived in that age.

S. George, saint George the Dragon did asswage:

S. George for England, &c.


The noble Earle of Warwicke, that called was Sir Guy,

The Infidels and Pagans, much he did defie:

He slew the Giant Brandimore, and after was the death

Of that most gastly Dun-cow, the Divell of Duns-more heath

Besides his noble deedes done beyond the seas.

S. George, saint George the Dragon did appease,

S. George for England, &c.


Richard the first, King of this land,

He gored the Lion with his naked hand:

The Duke of Austria nothing did he feare,

He killed his sonne with a boxe on the eare:

Besides, his famous actes done in the Holy land,

S. George, saint George the Dragon did withstand;

S. George for England, &c.


Henrie the fift, he conquered all France

And quartered his Armes, his honour to advance:

He raced their Cities, and threw their Castle downe,

And honoured his head with a double double Crowne.

He thumped the French-men, and homeward then he came,

S. George, saint George the Dragon he did tame:

Saint George for England, saint Dennis is for France,

Sing Hony soit pui mal y panse.


Saint David of Wales, the Welchmen much advancde,

Saint Jaques of Spain, that never yet broke Lance:

Saint Patricke of Ireland, which was saint Georges boy,

And seven yeeres he kept his Horse, that then stole him awaye

For which filthy fact, as slaves they doe remaine:

Saint George, saint George the Dragon he hath slaine.

Saint George for England, saint Dennis is for France,

Sing Hony soi qui mal y panse.


Imprinted at London by W. W. 1612.

Back to contents

This ballad is included according to the criteria for List A (see Methodology). The evidence presented here is accurate, to the best of our knowledge, as of 1st January 2024.

Shirburn ballads: not included.

Appearances on Ballad Partners' lists: Pavier and partners, 1624 (as 'Saint George'); Coles, Vere, Wright and Clarke, 1675 ('St George'); and Thackeray, 1689 ('St George').

Other registrations with Stationers' Company: none certainly established.

No. of known editions c.1560-1711: 6

No. of extant copies: 6

New tune-titles generated: 'St. George for England and the dragon' (2 ballads); and 'St. George' (1 ballad?).

Specially-commissioned woodcuts: none known.

Vaughan Williams Memorial Library databases: 23 references, with no evidence of later collection as a folk-song (Roud no. V9800).

POINTS: 0 + 30 + 0 + 12 + 6 + 6 + 0 + 2 = 56

Back to contents

This box will be used to highlight any new information on this song that might come to light after the launch of the website.

Back to contents